Authentic reason is
(a) Not logic, it is not built from a deductive system of thinking which falters when both premises misguides procedure and leads to wrong conclusions. Logic is willing to cooperate with both reality and fantasy. absurd premises yields absurd conclusions. The logical mind can also be extremely irrational in practice.
(b) Reason is not cold. Being cold or hot are all emotional states. The appropriateness test needed is to establish effects of emotional states on reason
(c) Reason is cautious, wary of vested interests of emotion. Reason needs emotion as a motivation for being reasonable. Emotion is the driving force to find out what is the truth but it does not need emotion to tell it what the truth is.
(d) Reason is first and above all the willingness to face the facts, pleasant or unpleasant. Facts are events in the real world. They have no agenda.
(d) Reason is necessitated by the need to solve problems through a procedure that has become known as the scientific method.
(e) What reason eventually reveals is a world not always "sane', thus there is need for rational courage. Reason by itself is never enough. It needs courage to provide the fuel for happiness, to overcome the challenges of 'insane' human condition .
This is a humanistic Judaism approach which raises the problem of reification. Religiosity? Reason or courage are not "things" with capacity to act out states of reality whether as thought processes or actions.Human beings use the facility of "reasoning" or become "courageous". The meta hypothesis of "emotion" as a motivational factor that links reason to courage, a relation of power, does not exhaust the possibilities in explaining why reasonable men do not act and others do even when they feel the same sense of outrage about a human condition. The Principle of Indifference could be an example of the sterility of reason when emotion itself is questioned and the characteristics of courage are defined as "may be-s". Can they cultivate a learned helplessness? Action not always the exact measure of either the extent of power of reason or emotion . Non-decisions decision. In NAZI concentration camps, we learn of acts of courage driven not by enlightened thinking but raw emotion. Risk-taking behavior is not always calculating. Role of intuitive thinking and acting? The "strength of human dignity" that Wine espouses is not an entity whose effects can be "measured". Concept of dynamic states or "powers" as in R. Harre's "Principles of Scientific Thinking, 1970, suggests capacities and liabilities. The individual as a concept and principle of non-change may require theorizing. KAKA